Theory of Mind


Watch the video about bundles. 

This bundle was created to edify and support your research interests. Recommended resources have the first word of the reference highlighted with light text over a dark background (e.g., Akbarian).

Some of the links go to research paper vendor sites with just the abstract available. To read the full article, sign in to HOLLIS Library and do the title search there.

Keywords in search: mind, brain, and education;  brain;  self to other;  theory of mind;  theory of mind neural correlates;  self and other neural correlates;  neural processing;  mental processing;  seeing thinking;  perceiving the other;  how brains understanding each other;  perception of intention;  experience;  visualizing the other;  social cognition;  emotion and social contagion;  environment to theory of mind;  theory of mind test;  exogenous attention;  uniquely human?;  children;  adults;  attention networks;  understanding the other;  predicting other’s actions;  social and self-perception

If you wish, you can download this bundle.


Arioli, M., & Canessa, N. (2019). Neural processing of social interaction: Coordinate‐based meta‐analytic evidence from human neuroimaging studies. Human Brain Mapping, 40(13), 3712-3737.

Ball, C. L., Smetana, J. G., & Sturge‐Apple, M. L. (2017). Following my head and my heart: Integrating preschoolers' empathy, theory of mind, and moral judgments. Child Development, 88(2), 597-611. 

Becchio, C., Koul, A., Ansuini, C., Bertone, C., & Cavallo, A. (2018). Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds. Physics of Life Reviews, 24, 67-80.

Bejanin, A., Chételat, G., Laisney, M., Pélerin, A., Landeau, B., Merck, C., Belliard, S., de la Sayette, V., Eustache, F., & Desgranges, B. (2017). Distinct neural substrates of affective and cognitive theory of mind impairment in semantic dementia. Social Neuroscience, 12(3), 287-302.

Bennett, C. L., & Rosner, D. K. (2019, May). The promise of empathy: Design, disability, and knowing the "Other". In Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-13).

Berenguer Forner, C., Roselló, B., Baixauli Fortea, I., García Castellar, R., Colomer Diago, C., & Miranda, A. (2017). ADHD Symptoms and peer problems: Mediation of executive function and theory of mind. Psycothemia, 29(4), 514-419.

Boccadoro, S., Cracco, E., Hudson, A. R., Bardi, L., Nijhof, A. D., Wiersema, J. R., Brass, M., & Mueller, S. C. (2019). Defining the neural correlates of spontaneous theory of mind (ToM): An fMRI multi-study investigation. NeuroImage, 203, 116193.

Bowman, L. C., Thorpe, S. G., Cannon, E. N., & Fox, N. A. (2017). Action mechanisms for social cognition: behavioral and neural correlates of developing Theory of Mind. Developmental Science, 20(5), e12447.

Bowman, L. C., Dodell-Feder, D., Saxe, R., & Sabbagh, M. A. (2019). Continuity in the neural system supporting children’s theory of mind development: Longitudinal links between task-independent EEG and task-dependent fMRI. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 40, 100705.

Bradford, E. E., Jentzsch, I., & Gomez, J. C. (2015). From self to social cognition: Theory of mind mechanisms and their relation to executive functioning. Cognition, 138, 21-34.

BrainFacts/Society for Neuroscience. (2019). Theory of mind. [Video]. (0:03:57). YouTube.

BrainFacts/Society For Neuroscience. (2018). Theory of mind: Only human? [Video]. (0:04:09). YouTube.

Buon, M., Seara-Cardoso, A., & Viding, E. (2016). Why (and how) should we study the interplay between emotional arousal, Theory of Mind, and inhibitory control to understand moral cognition? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(6), 1660-1680.

Bzdok, D., Schilbach, L., Vogeley, K., Schneider, K., Laird, A. R., Langner, R., & Eickhoff, S. B. (2012). Parsing the neural correlates of moral cognition: ALE meta-analysis on morality, theory of mind, and empathy. Brain Structure and Function, 217(4), 783-796.

Calarge, C., Andreasen, N. C., & O’Leary, D. S. (2015). Visualizing how one brain understands another: A PET study of theory of mind. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(11), 1954-1964.

Charness, G., List, J. A., Rustichini, A., Samek, A., & Van De Ven, J. (2019). Theory of mind among disadvantaged children: Evidence from a field experiment. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 166, 174-194.

Conway, J. R., Catmur, C., & Bird, G. (2019). Understanding individual differences in theory of mind via representation of minds, not mental states. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26(3), 798-812.

Coundouris, S., P., Adams, A. G., Henry, J. D. (2020). Empathy and theory of mind in Parkinson’s disease: A meta-analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Review, 109, 92-102.

Deuse, L., Rademacher, L. M., Winkler, L., Schultz, R. T., Gründer, G., & Lammertz, S. E. (2016). Neural correlates of naturalistic social cognition: Brain-behavior relationships in healthy adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(11), 1741-1751.

Devine, R. T., White, N., Ensor, R., & Hughes, C. (2016). Theory of mind in middle childhood: Longitudinal associations with executive function and social competence. Developmental Psychology, 52(5), 758.

Drayton, L. A., & Santos, L. R. (2016). A decade of theory of mind research on Cayo Santiago: Insights into rhesus macaque social cognition. American Journal of Primatology, 78(1), 106-116.

Ebert, S. (2020). Theory of mind, language, and reading: Developmental relations from early childhood to early adolescence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 191, 104739.

Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (2005). Theory of mind. Current Biology, 15(17), R644-R645.

Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (2007). Social cognition in humans. Current Biology,17(16), R724-R732.

Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (2012). Mechanisms of social cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 287-313.

Geiger, A., Bente, G., Lammers, S., Tepest, R., Roth, D., Bzdok, D., & Vogeley, K. (2019). Distinct functional roles of the mirror neuron system and the mentalizing system. NeuroImage, 202, 116102.

Global Mail, The. (2011). Theory of mind test. [Video]. (0:03:23). YouTube.

Closer To Truth. (2020, March 25). Alison Gopnik - What is theory of mind? [Video]. (0:08:46). YouTube.

Graziano, M. S. (2019). Attributing awareness to others: The attention schema theory and its relationship to behavioural prediction. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 26(3-4), 17-37.

Gunia, A., Moraresku, S., & Vlček, K. (2021). Brain mechanisms of visuospatial perspective-taking in relation to object mental rotation and the theory of mind. Behavioural Brain Research, 407, Article 113247.

Green, C. G., Brown, N. J., Yap, V. M., Scheffer, I. E., & Wilson, S. J. (2020). Cognitive processes predicting advanced theory of mind in the broader autism phenotype. Autism Research, 13(6), 921-934.

Han, S., Northoff, G., Vogeley, K., Wexler, B. E., Kitayama, S., & Varnum, M. E. (2013). A cultural neuroscience approach to the biosocial nature of the human brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 335-359. 

Heyes, C. M., & Frith, C. D. (2014). The cultural evolution of mind reading. Science, 344(6190), 1243091.

Ho, M. K., Saxe, R., & Cushman, F. (2022). Planning with Theory of Mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 26(11), 959–971.

Hoskinson, K. R., Bigler, E. D., Abildskov, T. J., Dennis, M., Taylor, H. G., Rubin, K., Gerhardt, C. A., Vannatta, K., Stancin, T., & Yeates, K. O. (2020). The mentalizing network and theory of mind mediate adjustment after childhood traumatic brain injury. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 14(12), 1285-1295.

Hutchins, T. L., Prelock, P. A., Morris, H., Benner, J., LaVigne, T., & Hoza, B. (2016). Explicit vs. applied theory of mind competence: A comparison of typically developing males, males with ASD, and males with ADHD. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 21, 94-108.

Jacob, P. (2019). Challenging the two-systems model of mindreading. In A. Avramides & M. Parrott (Eds.), Knowing Other Minds, (pp. 79-100). Oxford University Press.

Jacoby, N., & Fedorenko, E. (2018). Discourse-level comprehension engages medial frontal Theory of Mind brain regions even for expository texts. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 1-17.

Jones, C. R., Simonoff, E., Baird, G., Pickles, A., Marsden, A. J., Tregay, J., Happé, F, & Charman, T. (2018). The association between theory of mind, executive function, and the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder.  Autism Research, 11(1), 95-109.

Joordens, T. (2014). Introduction to psychology: Theory of Mind. [Video]. (0:13:40). YouTube.

Koster-Hale, J., & Saxe, R. (2013). Functional neuroimaging of theory of mind. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg & M. Lombardo (Eds.), Understanding other Minds: Perspectives from developmental social neuroscience, (pp.132-163). Oxford University Press.

Koster-Hale, J., & Saxe, R. (2013). Theory of mind: A neural prediction problem. Neuron, 79(5), 836-848.

Krupenye, C., & Call, J. (2019). Theory of mind in animals: Current and future directions. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 10(6), e1503.

Livingston, L. A., Carr, B., & Shah, P. (2019). Recent advances and new directions in measuring theory of mind in autistic adults. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(4), 1738-1744.

Mahy, C. E., Moses, L. J., & Pfeifer, J. H. (2014). How and where: Theory-of-mind in the brain. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 68-81.

Martin, A., & Santos, L. R. (2016). What cognitive representations support primate theory of mind? Trends in cognitive sciences, 20(5), 375-382.

Mukerji, C. E., Lincoln, S. H., Dodell-Feder, D., Nelson, C. A., & Hooker, C. I. (2019). Neural correlates of theory-of-mind are associated with variation in children’s everyday social cognition. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 14(6), 579-589.

Nguyen, T. N., & Gonzalez, C. (2022). Theory of mind from observation in cognitive models and humans. Topics in Cognitive Science, 14(4), 665-686.

Ondobaka, S., Kilner, J., & Friston, K. (2017). The role of interoceptive inference in theory of mind. Brain and Cognition, 112, 64-68.

O'Toole, S. E., Monks, C. P., & Tsermentseli, S. (2017). Executive function and theory of mind as predictors of aggressive and prosocial behavior and peer acceptance in early childhood. Social Development, 26(4), 907-920.

Pesquita, A., Chapman, C. S., & Enns, J. T. (2016). Humans are sensitive to attention control when predicting others’ actions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(31), 8669-8674.

Powell, J. L., Grossi, D., Corcoran, R., Gobet, F., & Garcia-Finana, M. (2017). The neural correlates of theory of mind and their role during empathy and the game of chess: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience, 355, 149-160.

Powell, L. J., & Carey, S. (2017). Executive function depletion in children and its impact on theory of mind. Cognition, 164, 150-162.

Qureshi, A. W., Monk, R. L., Samson, D., & Apperly, I. A. (2019). Does interference between self and other perspectives in theory of mind tasks reflect a common underlying process? Evidence from individual differences in theory of mind and inhibitory control. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1-13.

Richard Dawkins Foundation, The. (2010, May 19). Robert Seyfarth: Theory of mind. [Video]. (0:03:36). YouTube.

Ronchi, L., Banerjee, R., & Lecce, S. (2020). Theory of mind and peer relationship: The role of social anxiety. Social Development, 29(2), 478-493.

Saxe, R. (2009). How we read each other's mind. Ted Talk [Video]. (0:16:51). YouTube.

Schaafsma, S. M., Pfaff, D. W., Spunt, R. P., & Adolphs, R. (2015). Deconstructing and reconstructing theory of mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(2), 65-72.

Schneider, D., Slaughter, V. P., & Dux, P. E. (2017). Current evidence for automatic theory of mind processing in adults. Cognition, 162, 27-31.

Scholz, J., Triantafyllou, C., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., Brown, E.N., & Saxe, R. Schneider, W., Schumann-Hengsteler, R., & Sodian, B. (Eds.). (2014). Young children's cognitive development: Interrelationships among executive functioning, working memory, verbal ability, and theory of mind.  Psychology Press.

Schurz, et al., 2021. Toward a hierarchical model of social cognition- A neuroimaging meta-analysis and integrative review of empathy and theory of mind. Psychological Bulletin, 147(3), 293. Doi.org_10.1037_bul0000303

Schurz, M., Radua, J., Aichhorn, M., Richlan, F., & Perner, J. (2014). Fractionating theory of mind: A meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 42, 9-34.

Shurtz, M., Radua, J., Tholen, M. G., Maliske, L., Margulies, D. S., Mars, R. B., Sallet, J., Kanske, P. (2020). Toward a hierarchical model of social cognition: A neuroimaging meta-analysis and integrative review of empathy and theory of mind. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication.

Schuwerk, T., Schurz, M., Müller, F., Rupprecht, R., & Sommer, M. (2017). The rTPJ’s overarching cognitive function in networks for attention and theory of mind. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12(1), 157-168.

Serious Science (2016, December 16). Theory of mind - Uta Frith. [Video]. (0:10:55). YouTube.

Shah, P., Catmur, C., & Bird, G. (2017). From heart to mind: Linking interoception, emotion, and theory of mind. Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 93, 220–223.

Singer, T., & Tusche, A. (2014). Understanding others: Brain mechanisms of theory of mind and empathy. In P. Glimcher & E. Fehr (Eds.), Neuroeconomics: Decision making and the brain (2nd ed., pp. 513-532). Academic Press.

Smogorzewska, J., Szumski, G., Grygiel, P. (2020). Theory of mind goes to school: Does educational environment influence the development of theory of mind in middle childhood? PLoS ONE, 15(8), e0237524.

Sodian, B., & Kristen, S. (2016). Theory of mind. In Handbook of epistemic cognition (1st ed, pp. 80-97). Routledge.

Sodian, B., Licata, M., Kristen‐Antonow, S., Paulus, M., Killen, M., & Woodward, A. (2016). Understanding of goals, beliefs, and desires predicts morally relevant theory of mind: A longitudinal investigation. Child Development, 87(4), 1221-1232.

Spreng, R. N., Mar, R. A., & Kim, A. S. (2009). The common neural basis of autobiographical memory, prospection, navigation, theory of mind, and the default mode: A quantitative meta-analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(3), 489-510.

Tettamanti, M., Vaghi, M. M., Bara, B. G., Cappa, S. F., Enrici, I., & Adenzato, M. (2017). Effective connectivity gateways to the theory of mind network in processing communicative intention. Neuroimage, 155, 169-176.

UCLA Center for Behavioral, Evolution, and Culture Speaker Series. (2020). Rebecca Saxe - What is theory of mind? Implications for mind, brain and culture. [Video]. (01:46:42). YouTube.

University of California Television. (2013, November 26). CARTA: What is theory of mind? Theory of mind in human babies, the social brain in adolescence. [Video]. (0:58:37). YouTube.

Veissière, S. P., Constant, A., Ramstead, M. J., Friston, K. J., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2019). Thinking through other minds: A variational approach to cognition and culture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1-97.

Viana, K. P. (2019). Impact of children's Theory of Mind on their social interaction and cognitive performance in cooperative problem-solving tasks. [Publication No. 1564-3991) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Oslo]. Reprosentralen, University of Oslo.

Vogeley, K. (2017). Two social brains: neural mechanisms of intersubjectivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 372(1727), 20160245.

Wade, M., Prime, H., Jenkins, J. M., Yeates, K. O., Williams, T., & Lee, K. (2018). On the relation between theory of mind and executive functioning: A developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25(6), 2119-2140.

Wang, Z., Devine, R. T., Wong, K. K., & Hughes, C. (2016). Theory of mind and executive function during middle childhood across cultures. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 149, 6-22.

Westra, E. (2019). Stereotypes, theory of mind, and the action–prediction hierarchy. Synthese, 196(7), 2821-2846.

Winter, K., Spengler, S., Bermpohl, F., Singer, T., & Kanske, P. (2017). Social cognition in aggressive offenders: Impaired empathy, but intact theory of mind. Scientific reports, 7(1), 670.

Xie, D., Pei, M., & Su, Y. (2019). “Favoring my playmate seems fair”: Inhibitory control and theory of mind in preschoolers’ self-disadvantaging behaviors. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 184, 158-173.

Yang, D. Y. J., Rosenblau, G., Keifer, C., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2015). An integrative neural model of social perception, action observation, and theory of mind. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 51, 263-275.

Zunshine, L. (2019). What Mary Poppins knew: Theory of mind, children's literature, history. Narrative, 27(1), 1-29.

Date of last update: 15-Dec-2022 CB

This resource is protected under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license.