Literacy & Handwriting


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This bundle was created to edify and support your research interests. Recommended resources have the first word of the reference highlighted with light text over a dark background (e.g., Akbarian).

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Keywords in search: mind; brain; health; education; reading; writing; literacy; spelling and the brain; semantic retrieval and the brain; literacy and the brain; neural correlates of reading; neural correlates of writing; becoming a writer; handwriting; print; neural substrates of writing; orthography; neuroscience and writing; neuroscience and writing; vocabulary; language and the brain; neural connectivity and syntactic processing; text encoding; computer assisted writing; learning to read; learning to read; learning to write

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Alonso, M. A. P. (2015). Metacognition and sensorimotor components underlying the process of handwriting and keyboarding and their impact on learning. An analysis from the perspective of embodied psychology. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 176, 263-269.

American Museum of Natural history. (2012). Science bulletins: How does reading change the brain? [video] (2:01 minutes). Downloaded: Science Bulletins: How Does Reading Change the Brain?

Baldo, J. V., Kacinik, N., Ludy, C., Paulraj, S., Moncrief, A., Piai, V., ... & Dronkers, N. F. (2018). Voxel-based lesion analysis of brain regions underlying reading and writing. Neuropsychologia, 115, 51-59.

Bara, F., Morin, M. F., Alamargot, D., & Bosse, M. L. (2016). Learning different allographs through handwriting: The impact on letter knowledge and reading acquisition. Learning and Individual Differences, 45, 88-94.

Beaty, R. E., Benedek, M., Silvia, P. J., & Schacter, D. L. (2016). Creative cognition and brain network dynamics. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(2), 87-95.

Beaulieu, C., Plewes, C., Paulson, L. A., Roy, D., Snook, L., Concha, L., & Phillips, L. (2005). Imaging brain connectivity in children with diverse reading ability. Neuroimage, 25(4), 1266-1271.

Beeson, P., Rapcsak, S., Plante, E., Chargualaf, J., Chung, A., Johnson, S., & Trouard, T. (2003). The neural substrates of writing: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Aphasiology, 17(6-7), 647-665.

Berninger, V. (2012). Evidence-based, developmentally appropriate writing skills K to 5: Teaching the orthographic loop of working memory to write letters, spell words, and express ideas. [video] (21: 31 minutes). Downloaded:

Berninger, V. W., Abbott, R., Cook, C. R., & Nagy, W. (2017). Relationships of attention and executive functions to oral language, reading, and writing skills and systems in middle childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(4), 434–449.

Berninger, V. W. (2019). Reading and writing acquisition: A developmental neuropsychological perspective. Routledge.

Berninger, V. W., Nagy, W., Tanimoto, S., Thompson, R., & Abbott, R. D. (2015). Computer instruction in handwriting, spelling, and composing for students with specific learning disabilities in grades 4–9. Computers & Education, 81, 154-168

Berninger, V. W., Richards, T. L., & Abbott, R. D. (2017). Brain and behavioral assessment of executive functions for self-regulating levels of language in reading brain. Journal of Nature and Science, 3(11).

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Cook, C. R., & Nagy, W. (2017). Relationships of attention and executive functions to oral language, reading, and writing skills and systems in middle childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(4), 434-449.

Bondira, I. P., Lambert-Cheatham, N. A., Sakuru, R. C., Polinger-Hyman, D. J., Pipitone, B. D., Arnold, K. E., ... & Kaufman, D. I. (2021). Inability to read after prolonged COVID-19 hospitalization: MRI with clinical correlation. Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, 41(3), Article e277.

Bosse, M. L., Chaves, N., & Valdois, S. (2014). Lexical orthography acquisition: Is handwriting better than spelling aloud?. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 56.

Bulut, T., Hung, Y. H., Tzeng, O., & Wu, D. H. (2017). Neural correlates of processing sentences and compound words in Chinese. PloS one, 12(12), e0188526.

Calvert, G. A., & Campbell, R. (2003). Reading speech from still and moving faces: the neural substrates of visible speech. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(1), 57-70.

Cao, F., & Perfetti, C. A. (2016). Neural signatures of the reading-writing connection: greater involvement of writing in Chinese reading than English reading. PloS one, 11(12), e0168414.

Cao, F., Bitan, T., & Booth, J. R. (2008). Effective brain connectivity in children with reading difficulties during phonological processing. Brain and Language, 107(2), 91-101.

Cao, F., Brennan, C., & Booth, J. R. (2015). The brain adapts to orthography with experience: evidence from English and Chinese. Developmental Science, 18(5), 785-798.

Cao, F., Peng, D., Liu, L., Jin, Z., Fan, N., Deng, Y., & Booth, J. R. (2009). Developmental differences of neurocognitive networks for phonological and semantic processing in Chinese word reading. Human Brain Mapping, 30(3), 797-809.

Chaterdon, K. (2017). Contemplative neuroscience and the teaching of writing: Mindfulness as mental training. The Journal of the Assembly for Expanded Perspectives on Learning, 22(1), 7.

Chen, L., Wassermann, D., Abrams, D. A., Kochalka, J., Gallardo-Diez, G., & Menon, V. (2019). The visual word form area (VWFA) is part of both language and attention circuitry. Nature Communications, 10(1), 1-12.

Christ, T., Wang, X. C., & Chiu, M. M. (2017). Exploring factors related to young children’s word-meaning derivations during read-alouds. Reading Psychology, 38(1), 1-38.

Christodolou, J.A.. (2017). The reading brain: Neuroscience and assessment implications for hemispherectomy. [video] (1:01:31 minutes). The Brain Recovery Project. Downloaded: The Reading Brain: Neuroscience and Implications for Assessments After Hemispherectomy

Chyl, K., Fraga-González, G., Brem, S., & Jednoróg, K. (2021). Brain dynamics of (a) typical reading development—A review of longitudinal studies. npj Science of Learning, 6(1), 1-9.

Clarke, P. J., Henderson, L. M., & Truelove, E. (2010). The poor comprehender profile: Understanding and supporting individuals who have difficulties extracting meaning from text. In Advances in Child Development and Behavior 39, 9-129.

Clayson, A. (2018). Distributed cognition and embodiment in text planning: A situated study of collaborative writing in the workplace. Written Communication, 35(2), 155-181.

Collier, D. R. (2017). Glancing sideways at young writers becoming. Writer identity and the teaching and learning of writing, 169-182.

Comstock, E. J. (2018). Connections between neuroscience, rhetoric, and writing: A plastic pedagogy for the digital age. Routledge.

Côté, M., Lecolinet, E., Cheriet, M., & Suen, C. Y. (1998). Automatic reading of cursive scripts using a reading model and perceptual concepts. International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition, 1(1), 3-17.

Cutter-Mackenzie, A., & Rousell, D. (2019). Education for what? Shaping the field of climate change education with children and young people as co-researchers. Children's Geographies, 17(1), 90-104.

Dana, N. F., & Yendol-Hoppey, D. (2019). The reflective educator's guide to classroom research: Learning to teach and teaching to learn through practitioner inquiry. Corwin.

Davidson, M., & Berninger, V. (2016). Thinking aloud during idea generating and planning before written translation: Developmental changes from ages 10 to 12 in expressing and defending opinions. Cogent Psychology, 3(1), 1276514.

Dehaene, S. (2009). Reading in the brain: The new science of how we read. New York, NY: Penguin.

Dehaene, S. (2013). How the brain learns to read. [video] (33:29 minutes). WISE Channel. Downloaded: How the Brain Learns to Read - Prof. Stanislas Dehaene

 Dehaene, S. (2013). Lecture by Dr. Stanislas Dehaene on "Reading the Brain". [video] (59:36 minutes). Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies. Downloaded: Lecture by Dr. Stanislas Dehaene on "Reading the Brain"

Dehaene, S., & Dehaene-Lambertz, G. (2016). Is the brain prewired for letters?. Nature Neuroscience, 19(9), 1192.

Dehaene, S., Cohen, L., Morais, J., & Kolinsky, R. (2015). Illiterate to literate: behavioural and cerebral changes induced by reading acquisition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(4), 234.

Delgado, P., Vargas, C., Ackerman, R., & Salmerón, L. (2018). Don't throw away your printed books: A meta-analysis on the effects of reading media on reading comprehension. Educational Research Review.

Demblon, J., Bahri, M. A., & D'Argembeau, A. (2016). Neural correlates of event clusters in past and future thoughts: How the brain integrates specific episodes with autobiographical knowledge. NeuroImage, 127, 257-266.

Denes, G., Signorini, M., & Volpato, C. (2005). Post graphemic impairments of writing: the case of micrographia. Neurocase, 11(3), 176-181.

DiMenichi, B. C., Ceceli, A. O., Bhanji, J. P., & Tricomi, E. (2019). Effects of expressive writing on neural processing during learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, 389.

Doyle, M. (2016). This is your brain on editing: How digital tools affect the cognitive processes behind copyediting.

Drigas, A., & Gkeka, E. G. (2017). ICTs and Montessori for learning disabilities. International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT (iJES), 5(3), 77-84.

Dündar, H., & Akçayır, M. (2017). Tablet vs. paper: The effect on learners' reading performance. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(3), 441-450.

Duprez, J., Stokkermans, M., Drijvers, L., & Cohen, M. X. (2021). Synchronization between keyboard typing and neural oscillations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 33(5), 887-901.

Early, J. S. (2018). The lifespan development of writing. Writing & Pedagogy, 10(3), 453-455.

Ebrahimi, M. R., & Nezami, A. (2019). The impact of pre-task planning vs. on-line planning on writing performance: A test of accuracy, fluency, and complexity. Iranian Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 8(4), 1-10.

Europa, E., Gitelman, D., Kiran, S., & Thompson, C. K. (2019). Neural connectivity in syntactic movement processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, 27.

Feng, L., Lindner, A., Ji, X. R., & Joshi, R. M. (2019). The roles of handwriting and keyboarding in writing: a meta-analytic review. Reading and Writing, 32(1), 33-63.

 Ferré, P., Benhajali, Y., Steffener, J., Stern, Y., Joanette, Y., & Bellec, P. (2019). Resting-state and vocabulary tasks distinctively inform on age-related differences in the functional brain connectome. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 1-24.

Ferreira, R. A., Göbel, S. M., Hymers, M., & Ellis, A. W. (2015). The neural correlates of semantic richness: Evidence from an fMRI study of word learning. Brain and Language, 143, 69-80.

Fidalgo, R., Harris, K. R., & Braaksma, M. (2017). Design principles for teaching effective writing: An introduction. In Design Principles for Teaching Effective Writing (pp. 3-12). Brill.

Fink, A. (2019). Conducting research literature reviews: From the internet to paper. Sage publications.

Finn, E. S., Shen, X., Holahan, J. M., Scheinost, D., Lacadie, C., Papademetris, X., ... & Constable, R. T. (2014). Disruption of functional networks in dyslexia: a whole-brain, data-driven analysis of connectivity. Biological Psychiatry, 76(5), 397-404.

Fischer, A. G. (2018). Planning your way: How humans strategically evaluate prospective decisions. Neuron, 99(5), 874-876.

Friedrich, N., Wishart, K., & Peterson, S. S. (2018). Supporting emergent writers Through guided play in a kindergarten classroom. Journal of Childhood Studies, 43(2), 58-64.

Gaab, N. (2016). The typical and atypical reading brain. [video] (1:09:51 minutes). AIM Academy. Downloaded:

Gaillard, W. D., Balsamo, L. M., Ibrahim, Z., Sachs, B. C., & Xu, B. (2003). fMRI identifies regional specialization of neural networks for reading in young children. Neurology, 60(1), 94-100.

Gallo, I., Nawaz, S., & Calefati, A. (2017, November). Semantic text encoding for text classification using convolutional neural networks. In 2017 14th IAPR International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR) (Vol. 5, pp. 16-21). IEEE.

Gimenez, P., Bugescu, N., Black, J., Hancock, R., Pugh, K., Nagamine, M., ... & Hoeft, F. (2014). Neuroimaging correlates of handwriting quality as children learn to read and write. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 155.

Glusman, M. (2019). Books build better reading brains: Promoting language and literacy development in at-risk children. [video] (1:36:12 minutes). Downloaded: Books Build Better Brains: Promoting Language and Literacy Development in At-Risk Children

Goebel, R., Linden, D. E., Lanfermann, H., Zanella, F. E., & Singer, W. (1998). Functional imaging of mirror and inverse reading reveals separate coactivated networks for oculomotion and spatial transformations. Neuroreport, 9(4), 713-719.

Golestanirad, L., Das, S., Schweizer, T. A., & Graham, S. J. (2015). A preliminary fMRI study of a novel self-paced written fluency task: observation of left-hemispheric activation, and increased frontal activation in late vs. early task phases. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 113.

González, J., Barros-Loscertales, A., Pulvermüller, F., Meseguer, V., Sanjuán, A., Belloch, V., & Ávila, C. (2006). Reading cinnamon activates olfactory brain regions. Neuroimage, 32(2), 906-912.

Goswami, U. (2008). Reading, complexity and the brain. Literacy, 42(2), 67-74.

Goswami, U. (2008). Reading, dyslexia and the brain. Educational Research, 50(2), 135-148.

Gregg, L. W., & Steinberg, E. R. (2016). Cognitive processes in writing. Routledge.

Guan, C. Q., Smolen, E. R., Meng, W., & Booth, J. R. (2021). Effect of handwriting on visual word recognition in Chinese bilingual children and adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 1576.

Gudinavičius, A. (2016). Towards understanding the differences between reading on paper and screen: measuring attention changes in brain activity. Libellarium: časopis za povijest pisane riječi, knjige i baštinskih ustanova, 9(1), 0-0.

Gulyás, B. (2001). Neural networks for internal reading and visual imagery of reading: A PET study. Brain Research Bulletin, 54(3), 319-328.

Hagoort, P. (2019). The neurobiology of language beyond single-word processing. Science, 366(6461), 55-58.

Hajian, S. (2018). The benefits and challenges of analogical comparison in learning and transfer. SFU Educational Review, 11(1).

Hall, D. A., Fussell, C., & Summerfield, A. Q. (2005). Reading fluent speech from talking faces: typical brain networks and individual differences. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(6), 939-953.

Hillen, R., Günther, T., Kohlen, C., Eckers, C., van Ermingen-Marbach, M., Sass, K., ... & Heim, S. (2013). Identifying brain systems for gaze orienting during reading: fMRI investigation of the Landolt paradigm. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 384.

Horowitz-Kraus, T., DiFrancesco, M., Kay, B., Wang, Y., & Holland, S. K. (2015). Increased resting-state functional connectivity of visual-and cognitive-control brain networks after training in children with reading difficulties. NeuroImage: Clinical, 8, 619-630.

Hosseini, S. H., Black, J. M., Soriano, T., Bugescu, N., Martinez, R., Raman, M. M., ... & Hoeft, F. (2013). Topological properties of large-scale structural brain networks in children with familial risk for reading difficulties. Neuroimage, 71, 260-274.

Hslung, C. (2010). Maryanne Wolf on the reading brain. [video] (1:48:08 minutes). Downloaded:

Huang, Y. (2019). Parent-child reading: More than to improve children’s reading. Open Access Library Journal, 6(04), 1.

Hutton, J. S., DeWitt, T., Hoffman, L., Horowitz-Kraus, T., & Klass, P. (2021). Development of an eco-biodevelopmental model of emergent literacy before kindergarten: A review. JAMA Pediatrics, 175(7), 730–741.

Ihara, A. S., Nakajima, K., Kake, A., Ishimaru, K., Osugi, K., & Naruse, Y. (2021). Advantage of handwriting over typing on learning words: Evidence from an N400 event-related potential index. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15.

Itaguchi, Y., Yamada, C., & Fukuzawa, K. (2015). Writing in the air: Contributions of finger movement to cognitive processing. PloS one, 10(6), e0128419.

Jabr, F. (2013). The reading brain in the digital age: The science of paper versus screens. Scientific American, 11(5).

James, K. H. (2017). The importance of handwriting experience on the development of the literate brain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26(6), 502-508.

James, K. H., & Engelhardt, L. (2012). The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 1(1), 32-42.

James, K. H., & Gauthier, I. (2006). Letter processing automatically recruits a sensory–motor brain network. Neuropsychologia, 44(14), 2937-2949.

James, K. H., & Gauthier, I. (2009). When writing impairs reading: Letter perception’s susceptibility to motor interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138(3), 416.

James, K. H., Jao, R. J., & Berninger, V. (2016). The development of multi-leveled writing brain systems; brain lessons for writing instruction. In The handbook of writing research, pp.116-129.

James, K.H. (2012). The neural correlates of handwriting and its affect on reading acquisition. [video] (20:51 minutes). Zaner-Bloser in partnership with the American Association of School Administrators. Downloaded:

Jobard, G., Vigneau, M., Mazoyer, B., & Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2007). Impact of modality and linguistic complexity during reading and listening tasks. Neuroimage, 34(2), 784-800.

Jones, J. N., & Berninger, V. W. (2016). Strategies typically developing writers use for translating thought into the next sentence and evolving text: Implications for assessment and instruction. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 6(4), 276.

Kandel, S., & Perret, C. (2015). How does the interaction between spelling and motor processes build up during writing acquisition?. Cognition, 136, 325-336.

Karavanidou, E. (2017). Is handwriting relevant in the digital era?. Antistasis, 7(1).

Kaur, H., Williams, A. C., Thompson, A. L., Lasecki, W. S., Iqbal, S. T., & Teevan, J. (2018). Creating better action plans for writing tasks via vocabulary-based planning. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 2(CSCW), 86.

Kent, S. C., & Wanzek, J. (2016). The relationship between component skills and writing quality and production across developmental levels: A meta-analysis of the last 25 years. Review of Educational Research, 86(2), 570-601.

Kersey, A. J., & James, K. H. (2013). Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 567.

Kiefer, M., Schuler, S., Mayer, C., Trumpp, N. M., Hille, K., & Sachse, S. (2015). Handwriting or typewriting? The influence of pen-or keyboard-based writing training on reading and writing performance in preschool children. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 11(4), 136.

Kim, C. Y. (2016). Why research ‘by’ children? Rethinking the assumptions underlying the facilitation of children as researchers. Children & Society, 30(3), 230-240.

Kim, S. Y., & Cao, F. (2022). How does the brain read different scripts? Evidence from English, Korean, and Chinese. Reading and Writing, 35(6), 1449-1473.

Klass, P. (2016). Why handwriting is still essential in the keyboard age. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://well. blogs. NYTimes. com/2016/06/20/why-handwriting-is-still-essential-in-the-keyboardage.

Kornrumpf, B., Niefind, F., Sommer, W., & Dimigen, O. (2016). Neural correlates of word recognition: A systematic comparison of natural reading and rapid serial visual presentation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 28(9), 1374-1391.

Kraus, N. (2017). Neurobiology of literacy: Listening to the learning brain. [video] (1:26:20 minutes) Northwestern University. Downloaded: Neurobiology of Literacy: Listening to the Learning Brain (Nina Kraus)

Lamb, R., Hand, B., & Kavner, A. (2021). Computational modeling of the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic on student critical thinking in science using machine learning. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 30(2), 283-297.

Lenhard, W., Schroeders, U., & Lenhard, A. (2017). Equivalence of screen versus print reading comprehension depends on task complexity and proficiency. Discourse Processes, 54(5-6), 427-445.

Lide, A. (2018). Montessori Education: What is its relationship with the emerging worldview?. Journal of Conscious Evolution, 8(8), 5.

Liebig, J., Froehlich, E., Sylvester, T., Braun, M., Heekeren, H. R., Ziegler, J. C., & Jacobs, A. M. (2021). Neural processing of vision and language in kindergarten is associated with prereading skills and predicts future literacy. Human Brain Mapping, 42, 3517– 3533.

Likova, L. T., Tyler, C. W., Cacciamani, L., Mineff, K., & Nicholas, S. (2016). The cortical network for Braille writing in the blind. Electronic Imaging, 2016(16), 1-6.

Limpo, T., Alves, R. A., & Connelly, V. (2017). Examining the transcription-writing link: Effects of handwriting fluency and spelling accuracy on writing performance via planning and translating in middle grades. Learning and Individual Differences, 53, 26-36.

Lin, Z., Tam, F., Churchill, N. W., Schweizer, T. A., & Graham, S. J. (2021). Tablet Technology for writing and drawing during functional magnetic resonance imaging: A review. Sensors, 21(2), 401.

Loevenbruck, H. (2018). What the neurocognitive study of inner language reveals about our inner space. Langage Intérieur/Espaces Intérieur, Inner Speech/Inner Space, 18.

Longcamp, M., Hlushchuk, Y., & Hari, R. (2011). What differs in visual recognition of handwritten vs. printed letters? An fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 32(8), 1250-1259.

Longcamp, M., Velay, J. L., Berninger, V. W., & Richards, T. (2016). Neuroanatomy of handwriting and related reading and writing skills in adults and children with and without learning disabilities: French-American connections. Pratiques. Linguistique, littérature, didactique, (171-172).

Lopez-de-Ipina, K., Solé-Casals, J., Sánchez-Méndez, J. I., Romero-Garcia, R., Fernandez, E., Requejo, C., ... & Suckling, J. (2021). Analysis of fine motor skills in essential tremor: Combining neuroimaging and handwriting biomarkers for early management. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15.

Mak, P., & Wong, K. M. (2017). Self-regulation through portfolio assessment in writing classrooms. ELT Journal, 72(1), 49-61.

Maldarelli, J. E., Kahrs, B. A., Hunt, S. C., & Lockman, J. J. (2015). Development of early handwriting: Visual-motor control during letter copying. Developmental Psychology, 51(7), 879.

Mangen, A. (2016). The digitization of literary reading: contributions from empirical research. Orbis litterarum, 71(3), 240-262.

Mangen, A., Anda, L. G., Oxborough, G. H., & Brønnick, K. (2015). Handwriting versus keyboard writing: effect on word recall. Journal of Writing Research, 7(2).

Massaro, D. W. (Ed.). (2014). Understanding language: An information-processing analysis of speech perception, reading, and psycholinguistics. Academic Press.

McCandliss, B. (2015). Educational neuroscience: Your child’s brain and early literacy. [video] (49:02 minutes). Stanford Alumni. Downloaded: Educational Neuroscience: Your Child’s Brain and Early Literacy with Bruce McCandliss

Merchie, E., & Van Keer, H. (2016). Mind mapping as a meta-learning strategy: Stimulating pre-adolescents’ text-learning strategies and performance?. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 46, 128-147.

Metzner, P., Von Der Malsburg, T., Vasishth, S., & Rösler, F. (2017). The importance of reading naturally: Evidence from combined recordings of eye movements and electric brain potentials. Cognitive Science, 41, 1232-1263.

Mohamad, N. B., Lee, K. Y., Mansor, W., Mahmoodin, Z., & Amirin, S. (2017). 2D-EEG Topography and fMRI brain images for relaxation and letter writing. In EMBEC & NBC 2017 (pp. 406-409). Springer, Singapore.

Mohammed, B. J. (2018). Language and meaning: From understanding to misunderstanding. Basic Education College Magazine For Educational and Humanities Sciences, (41), 1442-1451.

Myrberg, C., & Wiberg, N. (2015). Screen vs. paper: what is the difference for reading and learning?. Insights, 28(2).

Nakamura, K., Kuo, W. J., Pegado, F., Cohen, L., Tzeng, O. J., & Dehaene, S. (2012). Universal brain systems for recognizing word shapes and handwriting gestures during reading. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(50), 20762-20767.

Neumann, M. M. (2016). Young children's use of touch screen tablets for writing and reading at home: Relationships with emergent literacy. Computers & Education, 97, 61-68.

Neumann, M. M., & Neumann, D. L. (2017). The use of touch-screen tablets at home and pre-school to foster emergent literacy. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 17(2), 203-220.

Novakovich, J. (2016). Fostering critical thinking and reflection through blog‐mediated peer feedback. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32(1), 16-30.

O'Brien, B. C., Balmer, D. F., & Maggio, L. A. (2017). Finding our way through shades of gray: 6 virtues to guide researchers in planning, conducting, and writing up research. Journal of Graduate Medicine Education, 7.

Osugi, K., Ihara, A. S., Nakajima, K., Kake, A., Ishimaru, K., Yokota, Y., & Naruse, Y. (2019). Differences in brain activity after learning with the use of a digital pen versus an ink pen-An electroencephalography study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, 275.

Palmis, S., Danna, J., Velay, J. L., & Longcamp, M. (2017). Motor control of handwriting in the developing brain: A review. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 34(3-4), 187-204.

Palmis, S., Velay, J. L., Habib, M., Anton, J. L., Nazarian, B., Sein, J., & Longcamp, M. (2021). The handwriting brain in middle childhood. Developmental Science, 24(2), Article e13046.

Pammer, K. (2014). Brain mechanisms and reading remediation: more questions than answers. Scientifica, 2014.

Pattamadilok, C., Ponz, A., Planton, S., & Bonnard, M. (2016). Contribution of writing to reading: Dissociation between cognitive and motor process in the left dorsal premotor cortex. Human Brain Mapping, 37(4), 1531-1543.

Perdue, M. V., Mahaffy, K., Vlahcevic, K., Wolfman, E., Erbeli, F., Richlan, F., & Landi, N. (2022). Reading intervention and neuroplasticity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of brain changes associated with reading intervention. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 132, 465-494.

Pei, L., Longcamp, M., Leung, F. K. S., & Ouyang, G. (2021). Temporally resolved neural dynamics underlying handwriting. NeuroImage, 244, Article 118578.

Perera, J., Aparici, M., Rosado, E., & Salas, N. (Eds.). (2015). Written and spoken language development across the lifespan. Essays in honour of Liliana Tolchinsky (Vol. 11). Springer.

Perfetti, C. A., & Tan, L. H. (2013). Write to read: the brain's universal reading and writing network. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(2), 56-57.

Pettit-O’Malley, K. L., Liesz, T. J., & Sisodiya, S. R. (2017). The relative efficacy of handwritten versus electronic student classroom notes. Business Education Innovation Journal 9 (2), 110.

Planton, S., Jucla, M., Roux, F.E., & Demonet, J.F. (2013). The "handwriting brain": a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of motor versus orthographic processes. Cortex. 49(10):2772-87. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2013.05.011.

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